Working and Non Working Mother Health Comparison

Chen and Lin (1992). Daily life demands, social support, life satisfaction and health of working women and housewives. To see the stress related to daily work overload, the Daily Life Demand scale, Social Support Scale along with the Life Satisfaction Scale and the Symptomatic scales are used to make comparisons between working women and housewives. A survey was conducted on 444 Taipei women revealing that daily life demands are experienced more by working women than housewives but also they have more support in dealing with these demands. The results showed high stress levels to be reported by all women being little more in working women than in housewives. Higher life satisfaction was reported by housewives and a higher degree of depression was experienced by working women.

Mukhopadhyay et al (1993). Working status and anxiety levels of urban educated women in Calcutta. A study group from Calcutta resident working mothers was compared with a socioeconomically similar group of non-working mothers with respect to their anxiety level, measured by the Anxiety Scale Questionnaire. The relationships between anxiety score and age of these women were studied. Non working mothers showed higher anxiety levels than their working counterparts with respect to the total anxiety score as well as components, although the differences were statistically non-significant.

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Doby & Caplan (1995). Organizational Stress as Threat to Reputation: Effects on Anxiety at Work and at Home. The results of this study showed that high threat stressors were most likely to generate the anxiety experienced at home and for this the anxiety experienced at work was the key mediator.

Rout et al (1997). Working and non-working mothers: a comparative study. This study examines whether positive or neutral effects on women’s health are found in employed mothers by comparing working and non-working mothers. The results showed that working mothers reported less depression and had better mental health than non-working mothers. Major stressor for working mothers was a lack of social life whereas not having enough time to do everything was reported as a source of stress for working mothers. This study emphasizes on the benefits than costs of multiple role involvement.

Welch & Booth (1997). Employment and health among married women. Sample of 500 urban married women was used to evaluate the possible effect of outside-the-home employment on the mental as well as on physical health of married women. It was found that wives who had been employed for more than a year were healthier than wives not employed outside the home and wives who had worked less than one year. Whereas, housewives who had never worked outside the home were healthier, on the whole, than wives who had been employed at some time in the past. Poor marital relationships and having no preschool age children seemed to increase the health advantage of long term employed wives over those in the housewife categories. Whereas the occupational status of wife and husband did not seem to change these health differences very much.

Macewan & Barling(1998). Inter role conflict, family support and marital adjustment of employed mothers: A short term, longitudinal study. This was done basically to address the two issues, the effect of inter role conflict on marital adjustment and the moderating role of social support and hardiness being considered within the same analysis. To the inter role conflict, family support, personality hardiness and marital adjustment of 51 employed mothers were assessed twice, three months apart. Using hierarchical regression analyses, inter role conflict and family support exerted main effects on marital adjustment at time 1. More importantly, a significant inters role conflict/family support interaction predicted change in marital adjustment over three months. High family support exerted a negative impact on marital adjustment when inter role conflict was high.

Greenhaus & Beutell (2000) Sources of Conflict between Work and Family Roles. This study examined the literature on the conflict between work and family roles and found out that work-family conflict exists when: (a) time devoted to the requirements of one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another; (b) strain from participation in one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another; and (c) specific behaviors required by one role make it difficult to fulfill the requirements of another.

Birch &Kamli (2000) Psychological stress, anxiety, depression, job satisfaction, and personality characteristics in preregistration house officers. This study got lifestyle questionnaires filled by the officers and measured the self rated psychological stress, state anxiety, job satisfaction, and personality characteristics. It was seen that more of women suffered psychological stress, possible anxiety and possible depression.

Nelson & Quick (2000). Professional Women: Are Distress and Disease Inevitable? This study states that discrimination, stereotyping, the marriage/work interface, and social isolation are a source of stress for professional women. The study also identified a mentor, locus of control, self-confidence, and self-awareness as moderators for a stress-strain relationship.

Paterniti et al (2002) Psychosocial factors at work, personality traits and depressive symptoms, Longitudinal results from the Gazel Study. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between psychosocial factors at work and changes in depressive symptoms, taking into account personality traits. The results showed that irrespective of the personality traits high scores were seen in both the genders when the job demands were high with low social support at work.

Krantz et al (2003).Total workload, work stress and perceived symptoms in Swedish male and female white-collar employees. This research studies how the perceived symptoms of the white collar employees are associated with paid work, unpaid household tasks, child care, work–child care interactions and perceived work stress.

Singapore Management Reviews published an article (2003) on work family conflict of managers by survey approach. Work and family are two important aspects of man’s life. The paper examined the nature of the conflict and its effects on manager. An empirical survey was described, aimed at enhancing the understanding the conflict that the individual experienced. This showed that although most of the respondent would trade some learning for family time, job related issue, investing security, flexible working hour and high profile for value ahead of laser activity but at a cost of behavior based, time based and strain based. Twenty percent of respondents strongly agreed that they would trade their income for lesser hour at work to spend time with their families, thirty percent of the respondents were neutral, forty percent of the respondents agreed that their family will accept and adjust to any necessary arrangements required.

Iqbal et al (2004). Anxiety in non-working women with reference to their education, family system and number of children. The objective of the study was to observe the presence of anxiety in working and non working women with reference to their education, family system and the number of their children setting. Purposive sampling technique used to select the sample of 50 working women and 50 non working women. Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale was administered on all women to assess on their anxiety level. Anxiety was observed more in non working women than in working women. A statistically significant association was found between anxiety in women and education. It was concluded that all non-working women should be supported morally and socially to spare some time for their entertainment and pleasurable activities outside homes to distract the monotony of routine work.

Hashmi et al (2006). Marital Adjustment, Stress and Depression Among Working and Non-Working Married Women. This study explores the relationship between marital adjustment stress and depression. Results also show that working married women have to face more problems in their married life as compared to non-working married women. Also it was seen that highly educated working and non-working married women can perform well in their married life and they are free from depression as compared to educated working and non-working married women.

Melchior et al (2007) studied depression and anxiety in young, working women and men due to work stress. The results showed that participants exposed to high psychological job demands (excessive workload, extreme time pressures) had a twofold risk of major depression or generalized anxiety disorder compared to those with low job demands. The study stated that in previously healthy young workers, diagnosable depression and anxiety is precipitated by work stress.

Aleem and Danish (2008). Marital satisfaction and Anxiety among single and dual career women at JamiaMilliaIslamia, New Delhi. The sample was selected by using purposive sampling 60 single and dual career women whose age group ranged from 25 to 45 years were studied using purposive method of sampling from Delhi. A Marital Satisfaction Scale was used to see the level of marital satisfaction among the two groups of women whereas; Sinha Comprehensive Anxiety Scale was administered on the sample to examine their level of anxiety. It has been found that pressure and hassles of jobs not only affect marital life but also proved to be a major source of anxiety particularly among women and also marital satisfaction among working women hardly get disturbed due to their multiple role but the thought processes seemed to be disturbed that is manifested in the higher anxiety among women.

Netterstom et al (2008) The Relation between Work-related Psychosocial Factors and the Development of Depression. The study found moderate evidence for a relation between development of depression and the psychological demands of the job. Also it was seen that social support at work decreased the risk for future depression.

Weiclaw et al (2008) Psychosocial working conditions and the risk of depression and anxiety disorders in the Danish workforce. This study examined the relation between psychosocial working conditions and the risk of anxiety and working conditions. The results showed high risks of depression but decreased risk of anxiety disorders related to high emotional demands and working with people.

Dew et al (2009) studied mental health effects of job loss in women. This study reviews literature on involuntary job loss and its effects on mental health among women. The occurrence and duration of lay-off was significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms, but not anxiety-related symptoms. Results showed that among women who were laid off, those who had poor levels of support from their husband and those experiencing more financial difficulties reported higher levels of depression.

Kaur et al (2011). Comparative study on working and non working married women: effect of anxiety level on life satisfaction. The objective of the study was to find out whether the anxiety level has any significant impact on the life satisfaction of the working and non-working married women. Research investigated the effect of anxiety level on the “life satisfaction” among the working and non working married women. “Satisfaction with Life Scale”, and “State-Trait Anxiety Test” was administered on an equal sample of women participants (n=45) from both the groups. Two way ANOVA was used for data analysis. The result showed that anxiety and life satisfaction are experienced differently by working and non-working women. The results of the study show that females those who are working and married, are low on anxiety with higher life satisfaction in comparison to the non-working married females. They perceived their life as challenging and secure. They feel more comfortable with their life situations. On the other hand, the non working married females are less satisfied with their lives and their anxiety level is also higher than the anxiety level of working females.

Lilhare&Borkar (2011). Comparative study on Stress and Anxiety in Working Women Performing Clerical and Shift Hour Duties. The study was designed to compare the stress, and anxiety level among different profession of working women. The study was an exploratory study. The Stress, Anxiety and Status test were administered on 200 samples, 100 for clerical working women and 100 for shift hour duty working women. The data was obtained and was analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t tests and compared. The findings of the research indicates that the working women performing Clerical and Shift Hour duties have significant difference on the measure of Stress,Status but do not have significant difference on the measure of anxiety.

Virtanen et al (2011). Long working hours and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a 5 year follow up of the Whitehall II study. This study examined how long working hours are associated with the onset of depression and anxiety symptoms in middle aged employees. The results showed two fold risk of developing depressive and anxiety symptoms in employees working for more than 55 hours a week as compared to those working 35-40 hours a week. Also sex-stratified analysis showed that women are more prone to depression and anxiety than men.

Revati and Jogsan (2012). Mental Health and Depression among Working and Non-Working Women. Total number sample taken was 80 women. The research tool used for mental health was measured by Dr. D.J. Bhatt and Gita R. Geeda (1992). Whereas the tool for depression inventory was used which was made byBeck (1961).t test was applied to check the significance of mental health and depression in working and non working women to check the correlation method was used. And results revealed that significance difference in mental health and depression with respect to both working and non working women on mental health and depression.

Adhikari (2012) conducted a study on Anxiety and Depression: Comparative Study between Working and Non-Working Mothers. A significant number of mothers are working and playing the dual role of an employee and housekeeper to provide financial help to their families. These mothers experience anxiety and depression regarding the time they spend with their children and child care method. The results showed significant differences in degree of depression and anxiety of working mothers but no significant difference in that of non-working mothers.

Bhadoria (2013). Level of Anxiety and Depression Among Working Women and Non Working Women of Gwalior. As today’s women have a whole set of responsibilities and problems involving the professional and family life, this study tried to compare the levels of depression and anxiety among working and non working women. The results obtained showed significant levels of difference between working and non working women.

Fall et al (2013). Comparative study of major depressive symptoms among pregnant women by employment status. This study compares the prevalence of major depressive symptoms between subgroups of pregnant women: working women, women who had stopped working, housewives and students; and to identify risk factors for major depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Prevalence of major depressive symptoms was the lowest for working women as compared to housewives. Multivariate analyses showed that other factors such as low education, low social support outside of work, having experienced acute stressful events, lack of money for basic needs, experiencing marital strain, having a chronic health problem, country of birth, and smoking were significantly associated with major depressive symptoms

Balaji et al (2014). A Comparative Study on Depression among Working and Non-Working Women in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. This study was done to assess the burden of depression its risk factors among adult female working and non working population. The results indicated that working women suffer more from depression than non-working women. The risk factors for depression were identified as economic problems workplace problems, relationship problems and no personal life satisfaction.


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