Psychological theories have tried to explain why and how the crime occurs. The psychoanalytic point of view, two main theories: Freud’s theory of stages of sexual development and the theory of addition of Intent by Bowlby in 1947. These theories conclude that there is a correlation between the formation of personality in childhood and future criminal behavior. Freudian theory of development, suggesting that we go through several stages of development; these phases are motivated by his sexual desires. These desires are unconscious elements – driven by internal forces – as claimed by Freud are id, ego and superego.
want is impulsive individual, which is regulated by the superego. The ego operates on the socially desirable. The works herein in accordance with the pleasure principle, which can be interpreted as an obligation to take care of immediate needs (for example, this could relate to the conduct fly). Those requirements are explored through the innocent children – through the four stages of sexual development. Freud’s theory believes that crime is affected by mental disorders, which caused a conflict between id, ego and superego, or it may be the result of incorrect recording of one of the stages of development. This mental disorder is often manifested as behavioral problems such as aggression or social passivity.
Therefore, Freud would say that crime is caused by a difficulty not overcome childhood. The adult shows criminal behavior has developed a personality defect, on the basis of the conflict, impulsivity and aggression. Freudian theorists believe that this conflict during his childhood or his early years was the adult without the capacity to feel empathy, remorse, regret or guilt, and failed to develop a sense of right or wrong. Therefore, the theory of Freud believes that crime is the result of personality defects that have been affected by disruption and lack of progression in stages of development has occurred in childhood.
In addition Bowlby (1947) and Ainsworth (1969) also explored the idea that early childhood experiences can affect adult behavior and delinquency perspective. Bowlby (1947) research on young offenders found that offenders, as the children had lost contact with the separation or experience with their natural mother were more prone to delinquency in adolescence. Ainsworth also looking for children and temporary separation from their mother or encourages children to antisocial act – either to withdraw or show aggressive tendencies. These studies have added support for the concept of attachment theory, which implies that social factors in the life of one person can affect the likelihood of crime and / or criminal activities.
Glueck and Glueck (1950) conducted a comprehensive review of over 400 factors and their potential to cause juvenile delinquency. We compared a control group of 18 men 500 11 youths to an experimental group of 500 young people of similar age who were in institutions for juvenile offenders. The results showed that young offenders were 1.5 times more likely to have experienced a distant relationship with his mother. In addition, parenting skills also seem to have an impact on the likelihood of criminal behavior.
For instance criminal boys were 2 times more likely to have experienced physical punishment to their parents. In addition, he found Glueck and Glueck (1950), parenting skills, parent of the child criminal were 2 times more likely to be incompatible with their discipline techniques, compared to non-criminal families. In addition, they received most of the boys interviewed (93%) of homes where it has been lax parental supervision, and they were allowed to make their own decisions. Therefore, these results suggest that the attachment or association between a child and their primary care entity is important in personality formation and development of their moral beliefs.
This research also shows how the use of the death of parents can be a cause of crime and anti-social and criminal. However, later research was to show that this conclusion is incorrect. Subsequent studies have indicated that parental permissiveness was a cause of juvenile delinquency and aggression. This last point is a critique of the Freudian approach to parenting. Freudian theorists argue that parents should be permissive and allow children to fight their way through situations without the main problem causing internal injuries in children by being too strict in its expectations with your child. Freudian theory is convinced that a healthy development can be encouraged by warm parent-child bond, which the child is helped to reveal the interactive discourse and reveal unconscious conflicts, which impede the progress of the child. This is why Freud’s theory suggests that anti-social or criminal behavior is strongly influenced by early experiences and abilities of the child to progress effectively during sex.
The problem with the evaluation of Freudian theory and attachment in the lack of scientific validation of these theories has gained. Freud himself said that his theory does not need empirical testing. Therefore, it was suggested that Freud’s psychological beliefs were mainly based on subjective speculation theory (Torrey, 1992). But this statement leads to significant problems in replicating studies and reliability testing. Arguably, the personality and behavior is an individual property – but on the evaluation of the relationship between psychological theories and crime, it is impossible to treat each person as an individual entity.
The reports are often general and said that juvenile offenders are likely to commit a crime, that is, to evaluate this argument is also important for reliable studies on this. Therefore, the above account lacks reliability and validity of the possibility – due to differences in methods of investigation that these studies used to collect, and generalize the results. Most of the research, which tries to find an association between childhood events and the behavior of adults against questionable validity – the nature of the material they are seeking.
For example, the assessment of childhood experiences is difficult – because it is retrospective information. If they rely on self-reported information is open to distortions, development or minimization of events. In addition, if the details of criminal behavior or child care impacts the professional look, but can also be distorted due to the nature of relying on a third person to interpret the events of the person concerned. Therefore, must be brought to your attention that the evaluation of the relationship between early experiences of crime and is a complicated issue that can not have a clear conclusion to be drawn. Another complication involved in the evaluation of psychological theories such as attachment theory is that the conclusions are highly dependent on social and cultural ideologies of childhood and acceptable behavior. For example, children and parents from different social groups and different cultures interact differently.
This means that what has to be lax parenting techniques in a social circle can be considered different in the second. Similarly, the concept of criminal behavior is also determined by political ideology, and how societies view certain types of behavior. Different societies and cultures can tolerate certain types of behavior than others. Another complication in the evaluation of psychological theories, such as the Freudian approach to personal development is not taking into account the environmental effects that may influence the early years of the child, for example, parents of the above, but other social factors may play an important role in whether a person may be exposed or involved in criminal activities.
For example, social adaptation, examines the factors that prevent an individual to commit crimes or act different way. Factors that may affect companies in this way for people to meet the desirable behavior may include education, family, church, social networks and communities where they live While Freud’s theory does not address how moral development occurs during childhood but it is not practical to include as social interaction can affect your inner thoughts.
In conclusion, based on the theories of Freud and the attachment to assess the relationship between early life experiences and crime we have had little scientific evidence that criminal behavior is the result of the experiments childhood. Given the likelihood that parental figure will be involved in the early years of a person’s life, parenting styles have been posted in this discussion. But the evidence cited above gives mixed views on whether certain parenting techniques adopted during childhood have a significant impact on how a young adult would act in the future. It may be useful to evaluate other factors such as environmental and social aspects as well as psychological factors, such as individuals, children and adults react to situations in your life as a child and an adult on growth. It is possible that some life events may have influenced the individual response to anti-social way – however, if these events do not occur in the first years of life, psychological theories such as Freud and founder of the theory can collect important indicators of potential and actual criminal behavior.