The Pearson Correlation Coefficient Psychology Essay

In this last chapter, results of the data analysis will be discussed extensively. Summary of statistical analysis, discussions on the major findings, implications and limitations of this research as well as recommendations for further study in the future will be presented in this chapter. At the end, a conclusion will be formed, highlighting the overall synopses of the research.

5.1 Summary of Statistical Analysis
5.1.1 Descriptive Analysis

From the data, majority of respondents are female which contributes to approximately 57% of the total respondents. The age trend of respondents is between 21 to 24 years old (96%) and majority of them are Chinese (95%). Since the target respondents are based on the accounting course, therefore no descriptive analysis will be provided for nature of course of respondents. As for the marital status, all of the students in accounting course are single.

5.1.2 Inferential Analysis
5.1.2.1 Pearson Correlation Coefficient

As a summary, the Big-Five personality trait that contribute the most to students’ performance are conscientiousness and least contributor are extraversion as well as neuroticism with correlation of 0.6645, -0.1370 and -0.1451 respectively. Besides, a moderate relationship exists between agreeableness and students’ performance with correlation of 0.3276, as well as between students’ performance and openness to experience with correlation of 0.3895. In addition, the result also shows that there are three independent variables which are conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness to experience having positive correlation to students’ performance. On the other hand, extraversion and neuroticism are negatively correlated to students’ performance. Overall, there is a significant association between all independent variables and students’ performance as all the significant value are less than 0.05.

5.1.2.2 Multiple Regression Analysis

Based on the analysis, the R square developed using enter method indicated there is 49.2% of variation in students’ performance that could be explained by all independent variables. According to the ANOVA test, the model is significant as the significant level at 0.0001 with F-value of 41.68. The regression equation developed from the study is SP = 0.807 + 0.588 CS + 0.138 AG + 0.161 OE + 0.004 EX – 0.097 NE. Thus, there is a significant relationship between conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness to experience and neuroticism with students’ performance.

5.2 Discussions of Major Findings

Table 5.1: Summary of the Results of Hypotheses Testing

Hypothesis

Description of Hypotheses

Significant Level

Statistic Result

H1

There is a positive relationship between conscientiousness and students’ performance.

0.0001

Supported

H2

There is a positive relationship between agreeableness and students’ performance.

0.0042

Supported

H3

There is a positive relationship between openness to experience and students’ performance.

0.0025

Supported

H4

There is a negative relationship between extraversion and students’ performance.

0.9177

Not Supported

H5

There is a negative relationship between neuroticism and students’ performance.

0.0325

Supported

Source: Developed for the research

There is a positive relationship between conscientiousness and students’ performance.

The result from data analysis indicates that conscientiousness personality has relationship with students’ performance. Therefore, the hypothesis (H1) is supported as the p-value is less than 0.05 (p a‰¤ 0.05). The past studies of Zyphur et al. (2008) concluded that conscientiousness could be positively and significantly related to students’ performance if the students are truly hard-working, motivated, and are committed to improve good performance in the school. Consistently, the findings in Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnham (2003) and Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnham (2008) also perceived conscientiousness as a major indicator in affecting students’ performance. Thus, the significance level from the result is higher than other independent variables. In addition, Laidra et al. (2006) found that conscientiousness not only provides students with organized, self-discipline and hard-working personality but they will also adopt learning approach and strategies in order to improve and insure their performances. For example, students might take extra classes in languages, computers, and leaderships to improve their performances. From these findings and evidence of past researchers, the result in the research is consistent and thus provides better affirmation on the reliability of the data.

There is a positive relationship between agreeableness and students’ performance

The result from the data analysis proves that the hypothesis (H2) is supported (p a‰¤ 0.05). This is because agreeableness has a positive relationship with the students’ performance. This result is consistent with the empirical studies of Taher and Jin (2011), Komarraju et al. (2009), and Laidra et al. (2006) which demonstrated that agreeableness have a positive relationship with the students’ performance. Furthermore, in the research conducted by Chamillard and Sward (2005) as well as O’neill and Kline (2008), it is evidenced from the study that agreeableness definitely have positive relationship with students’ performance as it enhanced students’ team or group performance.

There is a positive relationship between openness to experience and students’ performance.

The result from data analysis proves that openness to experience has a positive relationship with students’ performance since the p-value is less than 0.05 (p a‰¤ 0.05). Therefore, the hypothesis (H3) of the variable is supported. Based on Chamorro-Premuzic et al. (2006), openness to experience has positive relationship on the overall performance of students in the university. Open students with higher creativity, curiosity, and imaginative tend to seek a better ways or strategies that can help in improving their performance. In addition, the result carried out could be explained in the research conducted by Duff et al. (2003) which also indicated there is a positive relationship between the two variables, only with a mediating factor.

There is a negative relationship between extraversion and students’ performance.

The dependent variable addressed to the (H4) hypothesis of extraversion has no significant influence on the students’ performance as the significant value is more than 0.05 (p>0.05). Therefore, the hypothesis (H4) is rejected. This indicates that extraversion has least impact or maybe a positive relationship with students’ performance. This is in line with the study of Munteanu, Costea and Palos (2011), where they mentioned extraversion could not influence students’ achievement in a meaningful way. This is also supported by the study of Chowdhury (2006), who reported that extraversion was not statistically significant to the students’ performance. Nonetheless, such result contradicted with other studies stating that there was a positive or negative relationship between extraversion and students’ performance in different situation (O’Conner & Paunonen, 2007). For instance, Tshui and Cai (2011) found that students who have high in extraversion have more positive attitude and lower level of cortical arousal; which mean that they are able to perform well under stressful environment. Therefore, the findings in past research indicate a positive and significant relationship. However, Furnham

et al. (2006) reported that extraversion would be negatively related to students’ performance. In short, the result from this study is contradicting with the past empirical studies due to the possibility of personality from the target population.

There is a negative relationship between neuroticism and students’ performance

As expected, the findings regarding the relationship between neuroticism and students’ performance are consistent with the past empirical researches. The result from the analysis shows that neuroticism is negatively related to students’ performance. Therefore, the hypothesis (H5) is accepted. Neurotic students are less likely to motivate themselves in achieving better performance as they lacks confidence in their abilities to perform well in their works. This was also supported by Ahmad and Rana (2012) proving that students with low neuroticism would able to keep their emotional in line thereby facilitating their mind and perform well in their duties. Another argument is that students measured higher in neuroticism try to regulate their stress and search for an easier and faster way to complete their task, thus the quality of their performance will be lower. Furthermore, Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnham (2005) also proved that the traits of neuroticism, such as anxiety is prominent in predicting students’ performance.

5.3 Implications of the Study
5.3.1 Managerial Implications

The main contribution of this research is that it benefits the students by playing a role in clarifying which type of personalities that leads to a better student performance in university level. This is because this paper may provide a clearer depiction of personality types that the targeted respondents could use it as a guideline on whether what would be best for them in order to excel as a student in their university. In this research, the results showed that conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness to experiences were positively related to the students’ performance. Therefore, students could try to achieve a well-organized, friendly and intellectually curious personality as it will positively affect their student performance. Besides, the employers or the Human Resource managers could use the findings from this paper to assist them in recruiting fresh graduate’s employee with the right-typed of personality, according to the organization’s need. This study also pointed out that neuroticism has negative relationships on students’ performance. Thus, this paper would give the employers an idea of a person’s personality and how would it affect their performance before recruiting them. Furthermore, this research could also contribute in terms of increasing awareness regarding a person’s preferences and biases towards personality. Upon finishing reading this study, readers would be more aware of his or her personality development that would affects their learning. Besides, this study also helps in providing a suitable personality type for fresh graduates entering working environment in the future. Hence, higher level of educators or colleges should conduct and organize more seminars or soft skills activities regarding personality development to stress on the importance of developing a good personality. This would include stressing on the conscientiousness personality that should be adopted by every student in order to improve student performance.

5.3.2 Theoretical Implication

As supported by Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham (2003) the Big 5 personality traits, notably the conscientiousness, extraversion and neuroticism have a significant impact on the education achievement of a student. Based on the findings of this research, it is proven that the Big 5 personality traits indeed have a significant relationship with the student performance, both positively and negatively as well, as the multiple linear regression test of this research shows that 48.04% of variance in student performance is affected by the traits of conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion or neuroticism. Therefore, this research is proven significant as the results are in line with the similar past researches carried out.

5.4 Limitations of the Study

Firstly, this study had used questionnaires via self-administrated and distributed by hand to a total number of 270 final year undergraduate accounting students in UTAR Kampar Campus, Perak, Malaysia as the target respondents for this study. Hence, the data collected may not be large enough to represent every students in UTAR, as there are still other students from different courses. Because of this reason, the research findings cannot be generalized and lacks variation in data as each person varies with different type of personalities. For instance, there may be more extravert students in other courses that require more communications and interactions, such as Public Relations and Mass Communication. Besides, the questionnaires were completed through self-rating, meaning that the respondents were rating themselves and there is a chance that their rating will be biased intentionally or unintentionally. As a matter of fact, personality trait is a small factor that affects the students’ performance (Lim & Melissa, 2012). Although the adjusted R square in Multiple Regression Analysis of this research is considered high, at approximately 48%, this may due to the smaller sample size and too focused in just one group of target respondents. Thus, this research may overlook other variables that may influence the students’ personality and performance.

5.5 Recommendations for Future Research

For future study, it is strongly recommended to increase the sample size. The rationale is to assure that the results obtained would be strong and firm enough to be considered valid to represent all students from different faculties in UTAR so that the strength and generalization of the research can be improved (Tshui & Cai, 2011). Future researchers should use the delivery and collection mode of mail or internet questionnaires in order to extend the population more efficiently as web-based form are more convenient to reach a wider area of population. Besides, researchers should also conduct interview on the respondents to ensure that the scoring are matched with their personality. This can reduce the level of biases in the questionnaires as the interviews are able to reveal more of the respondents’ personality. Moreover, researchers may conduct similar study and collect data from different universities in Malaysia so that it can be a comparative study in different target respondents. Last but not least, researchers should take into consideration on other variables that found in the past empirical studies in which it may have the possibility of affecting the students’ performances (Lim & Ng, 2012). Variables such as learning approach, studying and learning strategies, family control, and others may need to be re-examined. This can contribute to a broader view of research and also able to enhance the dependability of the findings obtained from the research.

5.6 Conclusion

As a conclusion, the research has fulfilled its objectives to determine the relationship between Big-Five personality traits and students’ performance in UTAR. The result has revealed that the entire proposed hypotheses are being accepted except for the extraversion variable. In Pearson Correlation Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis, conscientiousness and agreeableness are the strongest factor in influencing the students’ performance in UTAR. Besides, the research has provided the students the factors that can improve their performances and some recommendations for a future related study by other researchers.