The impact of higher education on attitude and performance of police officers has a subject of a long-running debate within criminology and police science research for decades. Although some uncertainties remain, a large amount of literature has found a positive effect of higher education on the attitude and performance of police officers. The literature is primarily on studies from the United States of America in the 1970s and 1980s as part of the professional reform movement (Paoline & Terrill, 2007), but is supported by recent studies, was conducted.
Roberg and Bonn (2004) provide a comprehensive overview of the earlier literature and identified several key areas relevant to police work, that higher positive impact. First, in regard to the attitude of the police, it has been shown those police officers with a college education less authoritarian and more open system of belief to officers without a university education (Roberg & Bonn, 2004). It was suggested that the discretion of the police better suited to those persons who are less authoritarian and more open system of beliefs (Roberg & Bonn, 2004). Roberg and Bonn (2004) provide a comprehensive overview of the earlier literature and identified several key areas relevant to police work, that higher positive impact. First, in regard to the attitude of the police, it has been shown those police officers with a college education less authoritarian and more open system of belief to officers without a university education (Roberg & Bonn, 2004). It was suggested that the discretion of the police better suited to those persons who are less authoritarian and more open system of beliefs (Roberg & Bonn, 2004).
Secondly, the awareness of social and cultural problems within a community, sensitivity to and acceptance of minorities, professionalism and ethical standards, have all shown to be higher in college graduates compared to police officers without higher education (Roberg & Bonn 2004). These features combined with these officersaa‚¬a„? skills to understand human behavior and to build Community Relations suspect that the individuals more “humanistic police officers” (Roberg & Bonn, 2004). This theory has not yet been explored in detail and by Carlan Byxbe (2000), examines the differences between the humanistic qualities of criminal justice and criminal prosecution of non-college students. The study found no significant differences between the two groups, suggesting that higher education helps develop humanistic qualities within individuals (Carlan & Byxbe, 2000). Community policing – a predominant contemporary policing strategy, the police departments in close collaboration with the community to combat the problems (Criminal Justice Commission, 1998) address is based – is a very big “humanist” policeman empathize and communicate with citizens on the ground to ensure success (Meese, 1993). In particular, Meese (1993, p. 6) were talking the “capability for officers to all types of citizens” as critical to the success of Community Policing.
The performance of police officers has also shown to be related positively to college. Roberg and Bonn (2004, p. 474) cites several studies that indicated that college-trained officers will “have a higher evaluation ratings by their superiors” in comparison to officers, higher education does not. Police officers found a college education that even more adaptable to the complex nature of police work, leading to higher levels of job performance (Roberg & Bonn, 2004). Importantly, it also noted that the nature of the major college had no effect on the results, suggesting that the experience and skills from the completion of all universities are acquired and more important to teach the performance than the specifics of the content of police (Roberg & Bonn, 2004).
Roberg and Bonn (2004) identified literature also indicates academy achievement was higher among university graduates have police officers, and that these officers have also been rather fewer cases of disciplinary action taken against them, compared to non-graduate police officers. The use of force by police officers has also been shown to relate to college education. Paoline and Terrill (2007) found that different levels are related to higher education used to varying degrees of force by police officers. Those officials who were using some form of college education less likely to use verbal violence, in comparison with those in 2007 with only a high school education (Paoline & Terrill). found significant reduction in the use of physical violence only when police officers who had completed four years of college education, indicating the length of college education is relevant to the positive impact on police performance (Paoline & Terrill, 2007). The relationship between higher education and the use of force was also studied by McElvain and Kposowa (2008) found that college police officers are less likely to have been in shootings than officers who would not have had college education.
Candidate 1, with a Masters of Criminology has been reached a sufficient level of higher education to the desirable qualities, skills and attitudes as identified by the College police officers have held. The literature identifies the length of the study as relevant to the development of positive qualities, skills and attitudes. 1 as the plaintiff has studied for a longer period in order to obtain her Master’s degree, their qualities, skills and attitudes are developed. Candidate 1 should also have a better understanding of police work role and tasks of the Criminal Justice after studying criminology.
Based on Candidate 2 application, he has met the minimum requirements for education in the literature, which then is required for all the qualities, skills and education of a police officer. Despite not Criminal Justice had completed degrees, Candidate 2 is being developed further and better to the role of the police, compared to a non-college individual, as the literature identified no difference between the results of the criminal justice educated police officers and non-criminal justice-trained police officers . On one level of education, 1 and 2 is both suitable Candidate candidates for the position. Candidate 1 is studied more suitable for longer and with a level associated with the criminal justice system.
Cortina, Doherty, Schmitt, Kaufman and Smith (1992) conducted a study to measure the correlation between the “Big Five” factors of neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness and performance measures, including the training success, peer reviews, probationary reviews, and turnover in a sample of the police. Cortina et al. (1992) found that conscientiousness, neuroticism and tolerability were all significantly correlated to all measures of performance. High values for conscientiousness and tolerability were strong predictors for more training success, positive peer evaluations and probationary period, and reduced turnover. A high score for neuroticism proved to be emotionally stable, have to cope with the stress of police work (Kaczmarek & as a significant predictor of negative outcome for the performance measures (Cortina et al., 1992), unsurprisingly, as police officers Packer, 1997). Extraversion was found that a significant correlation between training success and turnover rates (Cortina et al. 1992).
Based on Cortina et al. (1992) study were largely carried out by a study by Black (2000) supported. Black (2000) states that conscientiousness was the personality characteristic most significantly correlated Academy performance, as measured by combing the results of a series of practical and scientific tests. Extraversion was also found that a positive correlation to performance. Openness to experience and tolerance was found to have no significant correlation between the performances, while neuroticism was the only trait to be negatively correlated to the performance measures (Black, 2000). Sanders (2008) contains a summary of the literature on the “big five” factors and how they relate to the performance of the police. Extraversion is described as similar assertion is generally seen as a positive feature and taken must pay higher wages, more promotions and higher job satisfaction in context. Neuroticism is described as emotional instability, is with feelings of dissatisfaction and mood swings, is generally seen as a negative quality, and job dissatisfaction has been linked. Compatibility is described as sympathy or compliance, and is often in people who are described as well as find polite, friendly, good-natured and tolerant. Studies show an inconsistent relationship with the police, with some proposed less pleasant break rules more often officers, while other studies found no relation to job performance (Sanders, 2008). People with a high degree of openness to experience, as described are imaginative and curious. His relationship to the performance of the police is unclear (Sanders, 2008), although the willingness to learn and acquire new experiences, is a quality found to be associated with Performance Academy (Barrick & Mount, 1991). Conscientiousness is as an individual perseverance, organization and motivation to achieve the objectives described. This train has been consistently linked with the police performance in several studies (Sanders, 2008).
Candidate 1’s personality profile shows a very high rating conscientiousness, a positive sign that the Candidate may be good, much to the position on the literature show a strong relationship between conscientiousness and performance suitable. Candidate 1’s average rating is no compatibility problem, given the unclear nature of their relationship with the police, during an average rating of extraversion shows a degree of enforcement assets within the individual. Candidate 1 the low openness to experience, and average rating for neuroticism are cause for some concern as a candidate must be willing to learn and adopt new experience good performance at the Academy, while the remaining emotionally stable in stressful situations. Candidate 2’s personality profile shows a high rating for conscientiousness to the Candidate, the suitability for the position. Candidate 2’s high scores for openness to experience and extraversion also increase the Candidate’s suitability for the position, with the former increases the chances of a successful career at the Academy and the subsequent production of the Candidate more sociable, happy, and increasing promotion opportunities and satisfaction at work. As with the plaintiffs an average rating for 1 amenity not affect the suitability for the position, but an average rating for neuroticism potentially deal of concern with the Candidate’s ability to stressful situations.
Although the personality profiles for both Candidates are suitable for the position. However, Candidate has 2 more appropriate given the Candidate’s high scores for conscientiousness, openness to experience and extraversion, while Candidates with similar ratings 1 for agreeableness and neuroticism.
Communication skills are often included in a measure of police performance. Strong communication skills are a highly desirable trait in a police officer as communication forms, such as a significant part of police work, from simple tasks like retrieving information from a witness (Michals & Higgins, 1997) to more complex tasks such as solving tense situations without the use of force (Paoline & Terrill, 2007). Communication skills were also identified as crucial to ensuring the success of Community Policing (Meese, 1993).
Candidates 1 and 2 are both suitable for police work have been role with respect to communications capability ratings of good and excellent respectively given by the interviewer. The interviewer commented on the two Candidates, high motivation for the police role, an encouraging sign and one that shows a genuine interest in the position. Candidates 1 and 2 are both a clear Integrity Check, have an essential condition to be suitable for the position.