Research Results: Personality changes

CHAPTER 4

This chapter shows the results gathered by the researchers. As presented in the following graphs with corresponding analyses and interpretations, it answered the queries sought for by the researchers. This, in the process, gave more light to the research, itself.

Age of Respondents

Table 1

Analysis:

The table shows that 7 respondents came from the 20 – 30 age group, 1 from the 31 – 40 and 41 – 50 age groups. This corresponded to 77.78% (20 – 30 age group), 11.11% (3 1 -40 and 41 – 50 age groups).

Interpretation:

Personality changes throughout the life span. In the table above, most of the respondents fall under the 20 – 30 age group. This means that most of the respondents are in their young adulthood. Young adults are characterized by increased sense of independence and esteem. They are generally more goal – directed and purpose driven.

Gender of Respondents

Table 2

Analysis:

The table shows that 6 of the respondents were male and only 3 were female. This corresponded to 66.67% (male) and 33.33% (female).

Interpretation:

The table shows that most of the respondents are male. Men generally are domineering and assertive while women are more nurturing and caring. This spells out gender differences in terms of personality.

Big Five Personality Traits

Table 3

Clinical Instructor # 1

Big Five Personality
Weighted Mean
Verbal Interpretation

Extraversion

4

Agree a little

Agreeableness

4.89

Strongly agree

Conscientiousness

4.11

Agree a little

Neuroticism

2.5

Disagree a little

Openness

3.5

Agree a little

Analysis:

The table above shows that clinical instructor #1’s weighted mean for extraversion was 4 (agree a little); agreeableness, 4.89 (strongly agree); conscientiousness, 4.11 (agree a little); neuroticism, 2.5 (disagree a little); and openness, 3.5 (agree a little).

Interpretation:

Agreeableness is the tendency to be compassionate and cooperative with others. The trait reflects individual differences for social harmony. Agreeable individuals, as the name suggests, generally get along with others. They generally have an optimistic view of human nature. In relation to the table above, clinical instructor # 1 has a highest score in agreeableness personality with a score of 4. People who score in the direction of this type of personality tend to be trusting, generous, yielding, acceptant, and a good-natured. Agreeable individuals, in short, get along well with others, are well liked, avoid conflict, strive for harmonious family lives, and may selectively prefer professions in which their likeability is an asset.

On the other side, neuroticism personality is the lowest with a score of 2.5. Individuals who score low in neuroticism are less easily upset and are less emotionally reactive. They tend to be calm, emotionally stable, and free from persistent negative feelings.

Table 4

Clinical Instructor # 2

Big Five Personality
Weighted Mean
Verbal Interpretation

Extraversion

4

Agree a little

Agreeableness

4

Agree a little

Conscientiousness

4.33

Agree a little

Neuroticism

1.875

Disagree a little

Openness

3.5

Agree a little

Analysis:

The table above shows that clinical instructor’s weighted mean for extraversion was 4 (agree a little); agreeableness, 4 (agree a little); conscientiousness, 4.33 (strongly agree); neuroticism, 1.88 (disagree a little); and openness, 3.5 (agree a little).

Interpretation:

Agreeable individuals, as the name suggests, generally get along with others. They generally have an optimistic view of human nature. In relation to the table above, clinical instructor # 2 has a highest score in agreeableness personality with a score of 4. People who score in the direction of this type of personality tend to be trusting, generous, yielding, acceptant, and a good-natured. Agreeable individuals, in short, get along well with others, are well liked, avoid conflict, strive for harmonious family lives, and may selectively prefer professions in which their likeability is an asset.

On the other side, neurotic personality is the lowest with a score of 1.87. Individuals who score low in neuroticism are less easily upset and are less emotionally reactive. They tend to be calm, emotionally stable, and free from persistent negative feelings.

Table 5

Clinical Instructor # 3

Big Five Personality
Weighted Mean
Verbal Interpretation

Extraversion

3.625

Agree a little

Agreeableness

4.56

Strongly agree

Conscientiousness

4

Agree a little

Neuroticism

2.25

Disagree a little

Openness

3.7

Agree a little

Analysis:

The table above shows that clinical instructor #3’s weighted mean for extraversion was 3.625 (agree a little); agreeableness, 4.56 (strongly agree); conscientiousness, 4 (agree a little); neuroticism, 2.25 (disagree a little); and openness, 3.7 (agree a little).

Interpretation:

Agreeableness is a tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others. The trait reflects individual differences in general concern for social harmony (Ryckman, 2008). In relation to the table above, clinical instructor # 3 has a highest score on the agreeableness personality with a score of 4.5. This may indicate that the dominated characters are the following: amiable, considerate, understanding, lenient, kind and courteous. Their cheerfulness attracts people to them.

On the other side, neuroticism is the lowest with a score of 2.25. Neurotics are the people who are fearful, anxious, touchy and unstable often used tactics of regression and hardball (Ryckman, 2008). Since neuroticism is the lowest, there is a least possibility that this person will be able to develop a passionless, unexcitable and individualistic behavior.

Table 6

Clinical Instructor # 4

Big Five Personality
Weighted Mean
Verbal Interpretation

Extraversion

4.25

Strongly agree

Agreeableness

4.78

Strongly agree

Conscientiousness

4.11

Agree a little

Neuroticism

2.75

Neither agree nor disagree

Openness

4.4

Strongly agree

Analysis:

The table above shows that clinical instructor #4’s weighted mean for extraversion was 4.25 (strongly agree); agreeableness, 4.78 (strongly agree); conscientiousness, 4.11 (agree a little); neuroticism, 2.75 (neither agree nor disagree); and openness, 4.4 (strongly agree).

Interpretation:

Agreeableness is ambiguous because it refers both to a person’s being pleasing to others and the tendency to agree with others (Ryckman, 2008). In relation to the table above, clinical instructor # 4 has a highest score on the agreeableness personality with a score of 4.78. This may indicate that the dominated characters are the following: amiable, considerate, understanding, lenient, kind and courteous. Their cheerfulness attracts people to them.

On the other side, neuroticism is the lowest with a score of 2.75. Neuroticism is the tendency to experience negative emotions, such as anger, anxiety, or depression. It is sometimes called emotional instability. This implies that there is a possibility but only a little chance that this person will be able to become emotionally reactive and vulnerable to stress.

Table 7

Clinical Instructor # 5

Big Five Personality
Weighted Mean
Verbal Interpretation

Extraversion

2.75

Neither agree nor disagree

Agreeableness

4.22

Agree a little

Conscientiousness

3.89

Agree a little

Neuroticism

2.875

Neither agree nor disagree

Openness

3.5

Agree a little

Analysis:

The table above shows that clinical instructor #5’s weighted mean for extraversion was 2.75 (neither agree nor disagree); agreeableness, 4.22 (agree a little); conscientiousness, 3.89 (agree a little); neuroticism, 2.88 (neither agree nor disagree); and openness, 3.5 (agree a little).

Interpretation:

Agreeableness is ambiguous because it refers both to a person’s being pleasing others and the tendency to agree with others (Ryckman, 2008). In relation to the table above, clinical instructor # 4 has a highest score on the agreeableness personality with a score of 4.22. This may indicate that the dominated characters are the following: amiable, considerate, understanding, lenient, kind and courteous. Their cheerfulness attracts people to them.

In the other side, neuroticism is the lowest with a score of 2.87. Neuroticism is characterized by fear, anxiety, touchy and unstable often used tactics of regression and hardball (Ryckman, 2008). The fact, that neuroticism is the lowest, there is a least possibility that this person will be able to develop a passionless, unexcitable and individualistic behavior.

Table 8

Clinical Instructor # 6

Big Five Personality
Weighted Mean
Verbal Interpretation

Extraversion

3.625

Agree a little

Agreeableness

3.22

Neither agree nor disagree

Conscientiousness

3.44

Neither agree nor disagree

Neuroticism

2.875

Neither agree nor disagree

Openness

3.5

Agree a little

Analysis:

The table above shows that clinical instructor #6’s weighted mean for extraversion was 3.625 (agree a little); agreeableness, 3.22 (neither agree nor disagree); conscientiousness, 3.44 (neither agree nor disagree); neuroticism, 2.88 (neither agree nor disagree); and openness, 3.5 (agree a little).

Interpretation:

Extraversion is characterized by positive emotions, surgency, and the tendency to seek out stimulation and the company of others. In relation to the table above, clinical instructor # 6 is highest in extroversion with a score of 3.62; this may indicate that this person has a trait that is marked by pronounced engagement with the external world. Extraverts enjoy being with people, and are often perceived as full of energy. They tend to be enthusiastic, action-oriented individuals who are likely to say “Yes!” or “Let’s go!” to opportunities for excitement. In groups they like to talk, assert themselves, and draw attention to themselves.

In contrast, neuroticism is the lowest with a score of 3. Neuroticism is the tendency to experience negative emotions, such as anger, anxiety, or depression. It is sometimes called emotional instability. This implies that there is a possibility but only a little chance that this person will be able to become emotionally reactive and vulnerable to stress.

Table 9

Clinical Instructor # 7

Big Five Personality
Weighted Mean
Verbal Interpretation

Extraversion

4.375

Strongly agree

Agreeableness

4.44

Strongly agree

Conscientiousness

4.22

Agree a little

Neuroticism

1.625

Strongly disagree

Openness

4.3

Strongly agree

Analysis:

The table above shows that clinical instructor #7’s weighted mean for extraversion was 4.375 (strongly agree); agreeableness, 4.44 (strongly agree); conscientiousness, 4.22 (agree a little); neuroticism, 1.63 (strongly disagree); and openness, 4.3 (strongly agree).

Interpretation:

Agreeableness is the tendency to be compassionate and cooperative with others. The trait reflects individual differences for social harmony. Agreeable individuals, as the name suggests, generally get along with others. They generally have an optimistic view of human nature. In relation to the table above, clinical instructor # 1 has a highest score in agreeableness personality with a score of 4.375. People who score in the direction of this type of personality tend to be trusting, generous, yielding, acceptant, and a good-natured.

On the other side, neurotic personality is the lowest with a score of 1.625. People who score low in neuroticism are usually calm, even- tempered, self-satisfied, and unemotional.

Table 10

Clinical Instructor # 8

Big Five Personality
Weighted Mean
Verbal Interpretation

Extraversion

4

Agree a little

Agreeableness

4.44

Strongly agree

Conscientiousness

5

Strongly agree

Neuroticism

1.5

Strongly disagree

Openness

4.3

Strongly agree

Analysis:

The table above shows that clinical instructor #8’s weighted mean for extraversion was 4 (agree a little); agreeableness, 4.44 (strongly agree); conscientiousness, 5 (strongly agree); neuroticism, 1.5 (strongly disagree); and openness, 4.3 (strongly agree).

Interpretation:

Conscientiousness describes people who are ordered, controlled, organized, ambitious, achievement focused, and self-disciplined. In relation to the table above, clinical instructor # 8 has a highest score in conscientiousness personality with a score of 5. The high conscientious individual is exceptionally industrious, putting in the long hours of diligent hard work needed to get ahead. They tend to perform well in school and work, avoids breaking the rules, and has a more stable and secures romantic relationship. The hard work, punctuality, and reliable behavior exhibited by conscientious individuals result in a host of life outcomes such as higher grade point average, greater job satisfaction, greater job security, and more positive and committed social relationship.

On the other side, neurotic personality is the lowest with a score of 1.5. People who score low in this type of personality has a least chance of experiencing negative emotions easily, such as depression, anxiety, anger, or vulnerability.

Table 11

Clinical Instructor # 9

Big Five Personality
Weighted Mean
Verbal Interpretation

Extraversion

3.625

Agree a little

Agreeableness

4

Agree a little

Conscientiousness

3.67

Agree a little

Neuroticism

2.5

Disagree a little

Openness

3.8

Agree a little

Analysis:

The table above shows that clinical instructor #9’s weighted mean for extraversion was 3.625 (agree a little); agreeableness, 4 (agree a little); conscientiousness, 3.67 (agree a little); neuroticism, 2.5 (disagree a little); and openness, 3.8 (agree a little).

Interpretation:

Agreeableness is the tendency to be compassionate and cooperative with others. The trait reflects individual differences for social harmony. Agreeable individuals, as the name suggests, generally get along with others. They generally have an optimistic view of human nature. In relation to the graph above, clinical instructor # 9 has a highest score in agreeableness personality with a score of 4. People who score in the direction of this type of personality tend to be trusting, generous, yielding, acceptant, and a good-natured. Agreeable individuals, in short, get along well with others, are well liked, avoid conflict, strive for harmonious family lives, and may selectively prefer professions in which their likeability is an asset.

In the other side, neurotic personality is the lowest with a score of 2.5. Individuals who score low in neuroticism are less easily upset and are less emotionally reactive. They tend to be calm, emotionally stable, and free from persistent negative feelings.

Clinical Performance Grades per Clinical Instructor

Table 12

Clinical Instructor # 1

Analysis:

The table above shows that for clinical instructor # 1, the weighted mean of the clinical performance grades of the students handled, B2 and E2, is 1.43, construed as superior.

Interpretation:

Grades are standardized measurements of varying levels of comprehension within a subject area. Grades can be assigned in letters (A, B, C, D, E or F), as a range (1.0-4.0), or as descriptors (excellent, great, satisfactory, needs improvement). The Philippines has varied university grading systems. Most universities, particularly public institutions, follow the grade point system scale of 5.00 – 1.00, in which 1.00 is the highest grade and 5.00 is the lowest possible grade. The determination of the specific grade a student receives must be based on the teacher’s best judgment of all aspects of each student’s performance during a grading period.

The student’s clinical performance grades will be utilized in the succeeding tables to determine its possible relationship to the clinical instructor’s personalities which is the main goal of the study.

Table 13

Clinical Instructor # 2

Analysis:

The table above shows that for clinical instructor # 2, the weighted mean of the clinical performance grades of the students handled, A2 and D2, is 1.5, construed as superior.

Interpretation:

Personality involves both desirable and undesirable characteristics. Several studies also have shown that conscientiousness and emotional stability has been a determinant of performance. Individuals that fall under conscientiousness tend to be disciplined, goal directed and organized. In relation to the study, clinical instructor # 2 is evidently effective to the students as the table above shows that the weighted mean is that of superior.

Table 14

Clinical Instructor # 3

Groups Handled
Weighted Mean
Verbal Interpretation

C1 and F1

1.375

Superior

Analysis:

The table above shows that for clinical instructor # 3, the weighted mean of the clinical performance grades of the students handled, C1 and F1, is 1.36, construed as superior.

Interpretation:

Individuals who fall under agreeableness tend to be cooperative and compassionate. In relation to the study, clinical instructors who are highly agreeable is effective in dealing with students when in the clinical setting.

Table 15

Clinical Instructor # 4

Analysis:

The table above shows that for clinical instructor # 4, the weighted mean of the clinical performance grades of the students handled, A1 and D1, is 1.59, construed as very satisfactory.

Interpretation:

Clinical instructors who are highly agreeable tend to be cooperative and compassionate. As shown in the graph, the weighted mean is 1.59, which falls under very satisfactory. Given this data, it can be concluded that generally not all agreeable clinical instructors have the same effect on students. A lot of factors interplay in determining clinical performance.

Table 16

Clinical Instructor # 5

Analysis:

The table above shows that for clinical instructor # 5, the weighted mean of the clinical performance grades of the students handled, A and D, is 1.54, construed as very satisfactory.

Interpretation:

Clinical instructors who are highly agreeable are described to be tolerating, flexible, generous and cooperative. Agreeable persons also have an optimistic point of view of human nature. In addition, agreeable individuals tend to deal with conflicts cooperatively and collaboratively to maintain social affiliation.

Table 17

Clinical Instructor # 6

Analysis:

The table above shows that for clinical instructor # 6, the weighted mean of the clinical performance grades of the students handled, B and E, is 1.79, construed as very satisfactory.

Interpretation:

Highly extraverted people are those who are assertive, talkative and sociable in nature. They are able to form good working relationships, in students, most particularly. Student response is fairly good in this type of personality.

Table 18

Clinical Instructor # 7

Analysis:

The table above shows that for clinical instructor # 7, the weighted mean of the clinical performance grades of the students handled, C and C2, is 1.68, construed as very satisfactory.

Interpretation:

Agreeable persons are relatively trusting, altruistic, kind and affectionate. They are also characterized by their prosocial behaviors. This type of personality generates a good and favorable response from students.

Table 19

Clinical Instructor # 8

Analysis:

The table above shows that for clinical instructor # 8, the weighted mean of the clinical performance grades of the students handled, F and F2, is 1.96, construed as very satisfactory.

Interpretation:

Conscientious persons are those found to be organized, goal-directed and purpose driven. They are in fact known to be reliable workers. Conscientiousness was found to be the most nurturing personality when it comes to school performance. As seen in the table, clinical performances are relatively high but were also consistently changing.

Table 20

Clinical Instructor # 9

Analysis:

The table above shows that for clinical instructor # 9, the weighted mean of the clinical performance grades of the students handled, B1 and E1, is 1.83, construed as very satisfactory.

Interpretation:

High level agreeableness is characterized by their ability to get along with others easily. Agreeable persons are helpful in almost all learning environments. Disagreeable ones tend to place self-interest above everyone else. They are most likely suspicious, unfriendly, and uncooperative. These traits are not suitable for good student performance. The table shows that students handled by an agreeable instructor often perform fairly in the clinical area.

CHAPTER 5
Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations

Summary of Findings

Age of Respondents

Most of the respondents fell under the 20 – 30 age group. This corresponded to 77.78% of the total population.

Gender of Respondents

Most of the respondents are male. This corresponded to 66.67% of the total population.

Big Five Personality Traits of the Clinical Instructors

Most of the clinical instructors had agreeableness as their dominant personality trait. Out of the 9 clinical instructor respondents, 6 were agreeable. Two respondents were conscientiousness and one was extravert.

Clinical Performance Grades per Clinical Instructor

Most of the clinical performance grades were superior and very satisfactory, regardless of the personality of the clinical instructor who handled them last in the clinical area.

Relationship of Demographic Profile of Respondents with the Big Five Personality Traits

From the data and computations that have been performed, the demographic profile had no relationship to the personality of the clinical instructor.

Relationship of the Big Five Personality Traits with the Clinical Performance Grades of Students

From the data and computations that have been performed, the Big Five Personality Traits had a relationship to the clinical performance of the students in the clinical area.

Conclusions

Personality changes and evolves through time. It varies from person to person. Most of the clinical instructors in CEU Makati College of Nursing are of the agreeable type, regardless of gender. Similarly, most of the instructors who happen to be in their young adulthood years are also of the agreeable type.

Clinical performance of the students also varies per clinical instructor, even to those instructors with similar dominant personality traits. The researchers therefore conclude that there is an existing relationship between clinical instructor personality and student clinical performance. Although a lot of interplaying factors may be considered in determining student performance, personality of the instructor is one absolute and fine indicator of which.

Recommendations

Based on the problems discovered by the study, it is recommended that:

The school or college should frequent the administration of personality assessment tests to their clinical instructors to determine both the strong and weak points of each individual, and to determine how fit the instructor is in dealing with students in the clinical area.

The school or college should also arrange for meetings, create an atmosphere that will most likely address student concerns. In this way, the school is able to monitor how its students perform in the clinical area and how the instructor’s personality impacts student performance.

Personality should be looked at a broader perspective since it a complex idea rooted from innate endowment, sociocultural factors, emotionality, cognition, and morality.

Clinical performance should also not be limited in the accomplishment of a checklist. There may be underlying behavioral and motivating factors that can place a much greater impact in the results of the students’ clinical performance.

Future researchers should get a larger study population since differences are difficult to spell out in a small population. Point discrepancies are usually hard to decide on especially when determining what trait appears dominant over the others.

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