Jung Personality TypesJung’s Analytical Personality
The present study is an investigation of the extent to which Jung’s personality types (Jung, 1921) are related to psychometric intelligence. Although intelligence and personality were usually treated as independent constructs in the research of individual differences, recent studies have signified the importance of studying these constructs in conjunction, as significant correlations occur between them (Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997; Austin, Deary, Whiteman, Fowkes, Pedersen, Rabbitt, Bent & Mclnnes, 2002; Moutafi, Fumham & Crump, 2003).
Most studies investigating the relationship between personality and intelligence have focused on measures of intelligence in relation to the personality factors of the Five Factor Model (FFM), proposed by McCrae and Costa (1987). However, although the FFM is perhaps the most prominent model within in the academic research area, the test that is mostly used in the applied field of counseling and management training, is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Myers, 1985), which is measure of Jung’s personality types.
This study will investigate the relationship between intelligence and Jung’s Personality types, not only to extent the knowledge of how the constructs of personality and intelligence are interrelated, but also to provide psychologists within the occupational field with an understanding of how the measure they commonly use for selection and counseling purposes, could also provide some information on the individual’s intelligence.
There are various personality tests which are based on Jung’s theory of personality types, two of which are the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Myers, 1962), and the Jung Type Indicator. Both of these were developed to measure the four personality dimensions, which were proposed by Jung in his theory of personality types. These dimensions are Extraversion-Introversion (El), Sensing-Intuition (SN), Thinking-Feeling (TF) and Judgment-Perception (JP).
Extraversion refers to a person whose mental processes are directed at the external world whereas Introversion refers to an orientation towards the internal world. Judging and Perceiving are two processes by which individuals perceive and then act upon information; Perceiving is concerned with directly receiving information without evaluation, whereas Judging is concerned with organizing and processing information. Sensing and Intuition are two alternative ways of perceiving information; Sensing involves receiving information directly through the senses, whereas Intuition involves discovering possibilities which might not be immediately obvious from sensory data.
Thinking and Feeling are two alternative ways of judging information; Thinking involves the logical analysis of information in terms of the strict principles of cause and effect and Feeling involves identifying the emotional value that is attached to objects or events.
McCrae and Costa (1987) observed that the MBTI dimensions overlap with the Big 5 factors to such an extent that they suggested that the MBTI could be reinterpreted from the perspective of the FFM. More specifically, they found that El was correlated with Extraversion, SN with Openness, TF with Agreeableness and JP with Conscientiousness. These findings were replicated by later studies (Fumham, Moutafi & Crump, 2003) and Fumham et al. (2003) further found Neuroticism to be negatively correlated to both El and TF.
Due to the high overlap between the two measures, hypotheses made here on the relationship between Jung’s personality types and intelligence will be based on findings of the relationship between the Big 5 and intelligence, as research on the relationship between intelligence and Jung’s personality types is scarce. The major replicated findings on the relationship between intelligence and the Big 5 factors of personality are that intelligence is positively correlated with Openness to Experience (Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997; Austin et al., 2002) negatively correlated with Neuroticism and Conscientiousness and correlated with Extraversion, the sign of the correlation depending on the testing conditions (Ackerman & Heggestad 1997; Austin et al., 2002).
The studies that have investigated the relationship between Jung’s personality types and intelligence have mostly used the MBTI instrument. The most consistent finding in this literature is that intelligence is positively correlated with the SN dimension. Myers and McCaulley (1985) reported that students who scored higher on the Intuition pole, also tended to score higher on the California Test of Mental Maturity and on the Scholastic Aptitude Test-Verbal (SAT-V). This finding was supported by Moutafi et al. (2003) who found that individuals who scored higher on the Intuition pole also tended to score higher on measures of general intelligence.
The other dimension that has been found to be related to intelligence is JP, although researchers have not concluded on how precisely they are related. Myers and McCaulley (1985) proposed that Perceiving types average somewhat higher on intelligence tests than Judging types, whereas Judging types average somewhat higher in academic achievement (grades). Kaufman et al. (1996) argued that individuals at both poles are especially equipped to score highly on intelligence tests, as Judging individuals are concerned with decision making, planning and organizing, and Perceiving individuals are curious, adaptable and open to new events, characteristics which are related to intelligence. However, Moutafi et al. (2003) found g to be negatively correlated with Judgment whilst positively correlated with Perception.
Jung, though closely affiliated with Freud, eventually saw much of Freud’s analysis as overly centered on sexual desire. He wished to further Freud’s ideas and research the interesting images he discovered in his work. Jung eventually conceived the notion of a collective unconscious, a layer beyond the personal unconscious, introduced the concept of archetypes, and continued to identify 16 distinct personality types.
Jung unsatisfied with the extent of Freud’s work, continued to explore the human personality by taking into consideration, the strong presence of Intuition. This is a vague term, which can, to an extent, give the essence of the collective unconscious. Every human being experiences an inexplicable gut instinct, those individuals that are in tune with their instincts will always say that their instincts lead them in the right direction. Jung, realizing this, took the concept of intuition and expanded it, to form the idea of the collective unconscious.
Just as Mitochondrial DNA is passed down from mother to mother, going back as far as the hunter-gathers of the late Paleolithic era, the collective unconscious are also the thoughts of the past, which span the entire human race. The Theory of Evolution does support the idea that all human beings derived from Australopithecus of Northern Africa. Therefore, it is conceivable that should a deeper level of unconscious exist, it would be universal or collective. Further evidence dwells in the records of ancient civilizations.
Here we can find reference to mythological and cultural beliefs that could only be known to persons of that time; repeated in the dreams of today’s human being. People suffering from schizophrenia, often refer to some type of mythological character, who plays an intimate role in their activities/lives. Beneath, the repressed memories of the Personal unconscious lie the ideas and images of an ancient time. Îf which the only form of communication lies within imagery.
These images, known as archetypes, often surface to the mind through dreams. A person haunted by recurring dreams feels that there is a purpose behind this persistent imagery. Their dream is trying to tell them a message, give them advice. This advice centers on the person’s insufficient awareness of their capabilities. For example, a common emotional problem for women is their lack of self-confidence, one aspect of which could be achieving their ideal career (possibly in a male dominated field). Consequently, dreams riddled with a male archetype or an archetypal image of distress or capture is reaching out to the dreamer.
Informing her that she does have what is necessary, all that is needed is for her to embrace and assist the archetype and she will realize her strength and perseverance. Archetypes serve only to help the individual, helping them may mean forcing them to drudge through hurtful memories of the Personal unconscious, before, they can reach the message within the collective unconscious. Nevertheless, the result is always for the betterment of the individual. Archetypes, are commonly images such as the mother, the wise man or even water. Each holds a particular meaning to the individual.
When connected to an ancient idea, and then applied to present day difficulties, the meaning of the image opens up concept’s previously hidden from the person. The most common archetype, the Anima (the female inside every male) and the Animus (the male inside every female) assist the person in developing a relationship with the right mate. The right mate should be (according to Jung) faithful to the projection of our anima or animus within. When we find the person we feel like we have connected with our other half or have found someone that completes our personality.
The personality is something that Jung also analyzed, to the point where he identified 16 different personality types. Extroversion and Introversion are the beginning of a personality. The former describes a person who is comfortable with new people and environments, ready and willing to participate in the events, the latter, is more reserved, content with being his own “best friend” and insistent upon privacy. These two attitudes coincide with the four functions: Sensing, Thinking, Feeling and Intuitive (Judging and Perceptive were added later for a total of six personality functions.) Combined in one of sixteen ways they provide an idea of the strongest parts of your personality.
This notion is connected with the purpose of an archetypal image reaching the unconsciousness. If we deny a personality aspect within ourselves, the collective unconscious acts as an advocate for this present, but suppressed personality trait. This suppression occurs because the individual does not believe they have what it takes to develop into the person they unconsciously have always wanted to be, but feared the change or the act of changing. It is the recognizing of this image and trusting its revelation which develops the mind.
Jung puts forth a compelling theory on the true purpose of the mind. There is no negative unconscious human spirit, but a guiding hand that seeks to encourage the person on the best path. If any person were to attain the deep connection that Jung implies is possible, that person’s existence would surely be enlightened.
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Myers, I. B. (1962). The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Manual. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Myers, I. B. & McCaulley, M. H. (1985). Manual: A guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press