Mental Health of Geriatric Population Comparison

AIM

Mental health of Geriatric Population: A Comparative study between old aged living with family and in old age homes.

OBJECTIVE

To assess the dimensions of mental health of the old aged living with family and in old age homes.

HYPOTHESIS

There will be a significant difference in the mental health of geriatric population living in old age homes and with family.
There will be a difference between anxiety of old aged living with families and old aged living in old age homes.
There will be a difference between depression of old aged living with families and old aged living in old age homes.
There will be a difference between loss of behavioural control of old aged living with families and old aged living in old age homes.
There will be a difference between general positive affect of old aged living with families and old aged living in old age homes.
There will be a difference between emotional ties of old aged living with families and old aged living in old age homes.
There will be a difference between life satisfaction of old aged living with families and old aged living in old age homes.
There will be a difference between psychological distress of old aged living with families and old aged living in old age homes.
There will be a difference between psychological wellbeing of old aged living with families and old aged living in old age homes.

RATIONALE

To study the impact of old age problems on psychological well being in Indian context because of different societal values they experience different kinds of psychological problems. Growing numbers of elderly in countries of the developing world presage an increase in those affected by organic, age-related mental diseases such as dementia. A simultaneous rise in the burden of non-organic mental disorders in elderly populations is likely because stressors in many countries are affecting the mental health of the elderly directly and/or indirectly by altering the ability of families to provide care for them. It is believed that in order to improve the conditions of the old aged around the world we need to address the issues of mental health.

RESEARCH DESIGN

The between groups design is used to conduct the research work.

Variables

Independent variable –the place of stay of geriatric population

Dependent Variable – Mental Health

SAMPLE

To achieve the objective of the current study a sample of 30 old aged males &females in old age homes and 30 old age man & females living with family. Their socio demographic details were taken and it was seen that samples were distributed randomly to both the genders. The age group between 60- 80 was taken and it was found that the mean age came out to be 75. It was seen that half of the population belong to the urban area and had their education till 12th standard. The sample belongs to the middle class socio economic status.

SAMPLING

To achieve the above objective a technique of Purposive sampling is used.

Type of the study

Quantitative study is being used.

INCLUSION CRITERIA

Males and females

Between 60-80 years of age

Same geographical area i.e. Delhi/NCR

Old age homes

Aged living with their families.

EXCLUSION CRITERIA

Males who are above 80 years of age and who are below 60 years of age

Females who are above 80 years of age and who are below 60 years of age

People with physical problems.

Patients having any other psychiatric or neurological disorder

RESEARCH TOOLS

Mental Health Inventory (MHI; Veit & Ware, 1983)

The MHI measures general levels of psychological distress and well-being. The MHI consists of 38 items that are scored on a 6-point Likert scale according to the frequency of its occurrence over the past month. The MHI has elicited reliably strong internal consistencies ranging from .83 to .96 (Veit & Ware,1983).

It is a Self Rated Questionnaire measuring 38 items which describe symptoms or states of mind. Items are rated in terms of frequency or intensity of symptoms or states of mind over the past month. All of the 38 MHI items, except two, are scored on a six- point scale (range 1- 6) Items 9 and 28 are the exception, each scored on a five- point scale (range 1- 5).

The MHI may be aggregated into 3 types of summary scores: Emotional

• Six subscales – Anxiety, Depression, Loss of Behavioural/ Control, General Positive Affect, Emotional Ties and Life Satisfaction.

• Two global scales – Psychological Distress and Psychological Well-being.

• A global Mental Health Index score

Validity and Reliability

Mental health inventory has a reported .93 Cronbach alpha rating whereas its abridged version has .82 rating. The test referred to herein have been field tested on large number of people and is a well known test. Further it is pertinent to note that the mental health inventory depicted high correlation rating with MSQLI or Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Inventory.

MHI has reported both internal reliability and Test Retest reliability which are highly acceptable.

PROCEDURE

The first step in the research required that permission be sought from the publishers of the selected questionnaire for carrying out the study using their questionnaire. Having obtained the permission from the publishers; permission was sought from old age homes and with family members for carrying out the study on the old aged. The study was discussed with them in detail. Participants for the study were selected randomly and they comprised a purposive sample.

Consent was obtained from the participants and their family members by taking their signatures on the consent forms. They were duly informed that the information provided by them would be used for research purpose only and that it would not be misused in any way. Having obtained their permission the questionnaires were then administered on the old aged.

STATISTICAL TOOLS

T-test was used to assess the correlation among the variables of the study

SPSS 17.0 was used for result analysis

The data collected by the researcher on the questionnaire selected for the present study from each of the 60 participants was subjected t statistical analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Software Programme (SPSS 17.0) in order to test the suggested hypotheses.

TABLE 1

Scales

Groups

N

Mean +S.D

T

Sig.

Anxiety

with family

Old age home

30

28.2000 + 9.05691

-3.123

.003

30

34.9667 + 7.66759

-3.123

.003

Depression

with family

Old age home

30

12.4667 + 4.49316

-2.580

.012

30

15.2000 + 3.67095

-2.580

.013

Loss of behaviour/ emotional control

with family

Old age home

30

26.6333 + 7.37883

-3.701

.000

30

33.9000 + 7.82282

-3.701

.000

General positive affect

with family

Old age home

30

42.1667 + 8.96385

7.106

.000

30

26.9667 + 7.54519

7.106

.000

Emotional ties

with family

Old age home

30

7.5000 + 2.50172

3.560

.001

30

5.3667 + 2.12511

3.560

.001

Life satisfaction

with family

Old age home

30

4.3333 + 1.09334

6.697

.000

30

2.4333 + 1.10433

6.697

.000

Psychological distress

with family

Old age home

30

74.0667 + 21.24396

-3.644

.001

30

92.2333 + 17.14981

-3.644

.001

Psychological wellbeing

with family

Old age home

30

57.2667 + 10.28871

7.549

.000

30

36.9667 + 10.53887

7.549

.000

Mental health index

with family

Old age home

30

1.4707E2 + 26.24807

4.252

.000

30

1.1563E2 + 30.83715

4.252

.000

The above result table compares the mean and t score of the elderly living with families and old age homes at the scale of anxiety where group 1 indicates the lower mean (28.2000) than the mean of group 2 (34.9667) with the t-score of -3.123 significant at 0.01 level.
The above result table compares the mean and t score of the elderly living with families and old age homes at the scale of depression where group 1 indicates the lower mean (12.4667) than the mean of group 2 (15.2000) with the t-score of -2.580 significant at 0.01 level.
The above result table compares the mean and t score of the elderly living with families and old age homes at the scale of loss of behaviour/emotional control where group 1 indicates the lower mean (26.6333) than the mean of group 2 (33.9000) with the t-score of -3.701significant at 0.01 level.
The above result table compares the mean and t score of the elderly living with families and old age homes at the scale of general positive effect where group 1 indicates the higher mean (42.1667) than the mean of group 2 (26.9667) with the t-score of 7.106 significant at 0.01 level.
The above result table compares the mean and t score of the elderly living with families and old age homes at the scale of emotional ties where group 1 indicates the higher mean (7.5000) than the mean of group 2 (5.3667) with the t-score of 3.560 significant at 0.01 level.
The above result table compares the mean and t score of the elderly living with families and old age homes at the scale of life satisfaction where group 1 indicates the higher mean (4.3333) than the mean of group 2 (2.4333) with the t-score of 6.697 significant at 0.01 level.
The above result table compares the mean and t score of the elderly living with families and old age homes at the scale of psychological distress where group 1 indicates the lower mean (74.0667) than the mean of group 2 (92.2333) with the t-score of -3.644 significant at 0.01 level.
The above result table compares the mean and t score of the elderly living with families and old age homes at the scale of psychological well being where group 1 indicates the higher mean (57.2667) than the mean of group 2 (36.9667) with the t-score of 7.549 significant at 0.01 level.
The above result table compares the mean and t score of the elderly living with families and old age homes at the scale of mental health index where group 1 indicates the higher mean (1.4707E2) than the mean of group 2 (1.1563E2) with the t-score of 4.252 significant at 0.01 level.

TABLE 2

ANXIETY

DEPR.

LOS

GPA

ET

LS

Psy.Dist.

Psyc.W.B.

MHI

Anxiety

with family

Old age home

1

.906**

.508**

-.571**

.114

-.439*

.899**

-.666**

-.819**

1

.825**

.789**

-.833**

-.685**

-.625**

.600**

-.352

-.351

Depression

With the family

Old age home

.906**

1

.534**

-.624**

.123

-.531**

.876**

-.753**

-.805**

.825**

1

.760**

-.856**

-.713**

-.566**

.628**

-.527**

-.374*

LOS

with family

Old age home

.508**

.534**

1

-.470**

-.130

-.151

.764**

-.610**

-.681**

.789**

.760**

1

-.783**

-.711**

-.590**

.592**

-.361*

-.354

GPA

with family

Old age home

-.571**

-.624**

-.470**

1

-.096

.388*

-.663**

.813**

.727**

-.833**

-.856**

-.783**

1

.756**

.676**

-.621**

.491**

.386*

ET

with family

Old age home

.114

.123

-.130

-.096

1

-.164

.029

.226

-.023

-.685**

-.713**

-.711**

.756**

1

.503**

-.448*

.438*

.262

LS

with family

Old age home

-.439*

-.531**

-.151

.388*

-.164

1

-.388*

.476**

.451*

-.625**

-.566**

-.590**

.676**

.503**

1

-.415*

.351

.294

Psy.Distress

with family

Old age home

.899**

.876**

.764**

-.663**

.029

-.388*

1

-.731**

-.868**

.600**

.628**

.592**

-.621**

-.448*

-.415*

1

-.860**

-.849**

Psy.WellBeing

with family

Old age home

-.666**

-.753**

-.610**

.813**

.226

.476**

-.731**

1

.827**

-.352

-.527**

-.361*

.491**

.438*

.351

-.860**

1

.812**

MHI

with family

Old age home

-.819**

-.805**

-.681**

.727**

-.023

.451*

-.868**

.827**

1

-.351

-.374*

-.354

.386*

.262

.294

-.849**

.812**

1

The above table suggest that Anxiety (with family) has a Positive Correlation with depression, LOS, Psychological Distress and ET which are significant at 0.01 levels. Also, it shows that anxiety has a Negative Correlation with GPA, LS, Psychological Wellbeing and KMHI significant at 0.01 levels.

Anxiety of old aged living in old age homes has a positive correlation with depression, loss of behaviour/emotional control psychological distress which are significant at 0.01 level. Also, it has a negative correlation with General positive affect, emotional ties, life satisfaction being significant at 0.05 levels.

The above table suggest that Depression (with family) has a Positive Correlation with Anxiety, LOS, Psychological Distress and ET which is significant at 0.01 levels. Also, it shows that Depression has a Negative Correlation with GPA, LS, Psychological Wellbeing and KMHI are significant at 0.01 level and ET, LS are found to be insignificant.

Depression of old aged living in old age homes has a positive correlation with anxiety, loss of behaviour control which are significant at 0.01 levels. Also, it has a negative correlation with general positive affect, emotional ties life satisfaction, psychological wellbeing and mental health being significant at 0.05 levels.

The above table suggest that LOS (with family) has a Positive Correlation with Anxiety, Depression and Psychological Distress which are significant at 0.01 levels. Also, it shows that LOS has a Negative Correlation with GPA, Psychological Wellbeing and KMHI significant at 0.01 level and ET, LS being insignificant.

Loss of behaviour control of old aged living in old age homes has a positive correlation with anxiety, depression and psychological distress which are significant at 0.01 levels. Also, it has a negative correlation with general positive effect, emotional ties, life satisfaction, psychological wellbeing and mental health which are significant at 0.01 levels.

The above table suggest that GPA (with family) has a Positive Correlation with LS and Psychological Wellbeing and MHI which are significant at 0.01 levels. Also, it shows that GPA has a negative Correlation with ET, anxiety, depression, LOS and psychological Distress significant at 0.01 levels.

General positive affect of old aged living in old age homes has a positive correlation with emotional ties, life satisfaction and psychological well being which are significant at 0.01 level. Also, it has a negative correlation with anxiety, depression, loss of behaviour and psychological distress control which are significant at 0.01 levels.

The table suggest that ET (with family) has no significant correlation with any of the dimensions mentioned above.

Emotional Ties of the old aged living in old age homes has a positive correlation with general positive affect, life satisfaction which are significant at 0.01 level and psychological well being is significant at 0.05 levels. Also, emotional ties have negative correlation with anxiety, depression, loss of behaviour control being significant at 0.01 level and psychological distress being significant at 0.05 levels.

The above table suggest that LS (with family) has a Negative Correlation with depression, Anxiety, LOS, ET and Psychological Distress which are significant at 0.01 levels. Also, it shows that LS has a Positive Correlation with Psychological Wellbeing significant at 0.01 level and General positive affect, KMHI significant at 0.05 levels.

Life satisfaction of old aged living in old age homes has a positive correlation with General positive affect, emotional ties, psychological well being and mental health which are significant at o.01 level. Also, it has a negative correlation with anxiety, depression, loss of behaviour control which are significant at 0.01 level and psychological distress being significant at 0.05 levels.

The above table suggest that Psychological distress (with family) has a Positive Correlation with depression, Anxiety, LOS and ET which are significant at 0.01 levels. Also, it shows that Psychological Distress has a Negative Correlation with GPA, LS, Psychological Wellbeing and KMHI significant at 0.01 levels.

Psychological distress of old aged living in old age hoes has a positive correlation with anxiety, depression and loss of behaviour control being significant at 0.01 levels.

Also it has a negative correlation with GPA, distress and mental health significant at 0.1 level and ET,

The above table suggest that Psychological Wellbeing (with family) has a Negative Correlation with Anxiety, depression, LOS and Psychological Distress which are significant at 0.01 levels. Also, it shows that Psychological Wellbeing has a Positive Correlation with GPA, LS, and KMHI significant at 0.01 levels.

Psychological well being of old aged living in old aged homes has a positive correlation with GPA, MHI significant at 0.01 levels and ET being significant at 0.05 levels. Also it has negative correlation with depression, psychological distress significant at 0.01 level and LOS being significant at 0.05 levels.

The above table suggest that KMHI (with family) has a Negative Correlation with depression, Anxiety, LOS and Psychological Distress which are significant at 0.01 levels. Also, it shows that anxiety has a Positive Correlation with GPA, LS and Psychological Wellbeing significant at 0.01 levels.

The above table suggest that MHI of old aged living in old age homes has a positive correlation with GPA significant at 0.05 level and psychological well being significant at 0.01 level.