History and Development of Psychology

DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

The commencement of the history of psychology is difficult to determine, essentially for the reason that it is hard to found accurately what psychology is. Instead, we can simply point that psychology is the study of the mind and its functions particularly those disturbing comportment in a given context.

One way to think about the olden times of psychology is to categorize the different theorists and theories into “sections” (or schools of thought). Each section is a manner of thinking about human mind and actions that actually dominated the field for a certain epoch until a new manner of considering psychology started to control the field.

THE BEGINNINGS OF PSYCHOLOGY

The most primitive origins of psychology are, predictably, found in the primeval cultures of Greece, Egypt, China and India. (Oren Lahav .Origins of psychology.Available: http://psychology.learnhub.com/lesson/3833-origins-of-psychology. Last accessed 27 January 2015.) While modern psychology reveals the discipline’s rich and diverse history, the roots of psychology fluctuate considerably from present conceptions of the field. (Kendra cherry.The OriginsofPsychology.Available:http://psychology.about.com/od/historyofpsychology/a/psychistory.htm. Last accessed 27 January 2015.) From its initial beginnings, psychology has been confronted with several questions. The initial interrogation of how to describe psychology help out to establish it as a science distinct from physiology and philosophy. Further questions that psychologists have faced all through history comprise:

Is psychology truly a science?
Should psychology emphasis on visible behaviors, or on inner cerebral processes?
What topics and issues should psychology be concerned with?
Whatresearch methodsshould be used to study psychology?

Psychology itself had a long history, as a topic within the fields of philosophy and physiology. The initial psychological fundamentals are deep-rooted in philosophy. While the great philosophical dissimilarity between mind and body in western believed can be originated to the Greeks, it is to the powerful work of Rene Descartes, French mathematics, philosopher and psychologist that we owe the concept of dualism that stated that the mind and the body were two dissimilar things that interrelate to create the human experience. (“History of Psychology.” 123HelpMe.com. Available: http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=69704. Last accessed 27 January 2015). Today psychology is still related with several of the fundamental philosophical enquiries that thinkers were considering many years ago such as the correlative contributions of nature vs. nurture. (Kendra cherry.The Influence of Philosophy and Physiology. Available:http://www.netplaces.com/psychology/psychology-yesterday-and-today/the-influence-of-philosophy-and-physiology.htm. Last accessed 27 January 2015).

So what sorts out psychology unlike from philosophy? Early philosophers have recourse to techniques such as observation and judgment while modern psychologists made use of scientific ways to investigate and derive conclusions about human notion and actions. Early physiology enquiry on the mind and actions had an outstanding influence on psychology, essentially giving rise to the application of scientific methods to the study of human mind and behavior. (Kendra cherry.The OriginsofPsychology.Available:http://psychology.about.com/od/historyofpsychology/a/psychistory.htm. Last accessed 27 January 2015.)

Psychology emerges as a separate discipline.

Psychology took so long to emanate as a research-based field because it required time to mingle. Interpretating behavior, thoughts and emotions is challenging, which may possibly demonstrate why it was basically disregarded between ancient Greek times and the 16th century. (Saul McLeod. (2008). Psychology as a Science. Available: http://www.simplypsychology.org/science-psychology.html. Last accessed 27 January 2015.) So how psychology did became an independent field?

Wundtian Psychology and Structuralism

Psychology as a research-based subject began to spring in the 1800’s. (Saul McLeod. (2008). Psychology as a Science. Available: http://www.simplypsychology.org/science-psychology.html. Last accessed 27 January 2015.)

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) is recognized with founding the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879. Generally reckoned as the father of psychology, we might credit the founding to Wundt in 1874 when he composed his first textbook issued as “Principles of Physiological Psychology”. (“Early Frameworks: Structuralism and Functionalism.”(20 Sep 2014). Boundless Psychology. Available:https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/introduction-to-psychology-1/history-of-psychology-23/early-frameworks-structuralism-and-functionalism-111-12648/ Last accessed 28 January 2015).

Wundt actually made use of scientific methodologies especially his primary method of research which was “introspection”. (“History of Psychology.” 123HelpMe.com. Available: http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=69704. Last accessed 27 January 2015).

Wundt was concerned in studying the mind and conscious involvement. He maintained the point that the investigation of mindful thoughts would be the key to know the mind. His method to the enquiry of the mind was revolutionary in that it was founded on methodical and rigorous reflection, setting the groundwork for modern psychological research. ”. (“Early Frameworks: Structuralism and Functionalism.”(20 Sep 2014). Boundless Psychology.Available:https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/introduction-to-psychology-1/history-of-psychology-23/early-frameworks-structuralism-and-functionalism-111-12648/ Last accessed 27 January 2015).

Introspection was a practice used by investigators to term and examine their personal internal thoughts and emotions throughout a research experience

(From R. Eric Landrum. Brief History of Psychology. Available: http://personal.psu.edu/faculty/a/c/acp103/PSYCH105/brief_history.htm. Department of Psychology. Boise State University. Last accessed 28 January 2015).

Introspection subsisted for a few times and is still used today in present neuroscience study; nevertheless many scientists slate the use of introspection for its lack of experimental approach and fairness. (Kendra cherry.The Influence of Philosophy and Physiology. Available:http://www.netplaces.com/psychology/psychology-yesterday-and-today/the-influence-of-philosophy-and-physiology.htm. Last accessed 28 January 2015).

Structuralism Becomes Psychology’s First School of Thought

Structuralism emerged from Wundt’s concepts. Edward B. Titchener, an English instructor who was an apprentice under Wundt’s management, elaborated upon Wundt’s ideas and used them to establish the theory of structuralism, which aim to comprehend the mind as the “sum of varying underlying parts”. (“Early Frameworks: Structuralism and Functionalism.”(20 Sep 2014). Boundless Psychology.Available:https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/introduction-to-psychology-1/history-of-psychology-23/early-frameworks-structuralism-and-functionalism-111-12648/ Last accessed 28 January 2015).

The ultimate objective was to understand the brainpower. He assumed that if the rudimentary constituents of the mind could be demarcated and classified, then the structure of mental processes and higher thinking could be resoluted. (“Early Frameworks: Structuralism and Functionalism.”(20 Sep 2014). Boundless Psychology.Available:https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/introduction-to-psychology-1/history-of-psychology-23/early-frameworks-structuralism-and-functionalism-111-12648/ Last accessed 28 January 2015).

Using Wundt’s primary method that is introspection, however with strict guidelines, Titchener’s volunteers would try to crack down their responses and reactions to the most root feelings and discernments. (Kendra Cherry. ().The Origins of Psychology.Available: http://psychology.about.com/od/historyofpsychology/a/psychistory.htm. Last accessed 28 January 2015.)

Structuralism was criticized because its subject of scrutiny—the conscious experience—was not simply studied with skillful experimentation. Its reliance on introspection, despite Titchener’s strict rules, was disapproved for its deficiency in authenticity. Judges claimed that self-reflection is not viable, and that introspection can provide diverse results depending on the subject. (“Early Frameworks: Structuralism and Functionalism.”(20 Sep 2014). Boundless Psychology.Available:https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/introduction-to-psychology-1/history-of-psychology-23/early-frameworks-structuralism-and-functionalism-111-12648/ Last accessed 28 January 2015).

Even though the quest of structuralism mostly died with Titchener (1867-1927), he supplied a solid system of psychology which would well along be the matter and center of major alterations in psychology, resulting in a substitute approach to psychology: functionalism. (“Early Frameworks: Structuralism and Functionalism.”(20 Sep 2014). Boundless Psychology.Available:https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/introduction-to-psychology-1/history-of-psychology-23/early-frameworks-structuralism-and-functionalism-111-12648/ Last accessed 28 January 2015).

Functionalism

Functionalism is of great significance to the history of American psychology, for the reason that it is a system of psychology that is exclusively American. Wundtian psychology and structuralism one and the other have their origins in Germany, but functionalism is an American product. (From R. Eric Landrum. Brief History of Psychology. Available: http://personal.psu.edu/faculty/a/c/acp103/PSYCH105/brief_history.htm. Department of Psychology. Boise State University. Last accessed 28 January 2015).

The Functionalism of William James

American psychologist William James emerges in the mid- to late-1800s. While structuralism centered (synonymize)on discovering the structure of consciousness and how its contents are organized and stored, functionalists were more interested in how the mind worked, what mental processes accomplish, and what role consciousness plays in our behavior. As you can see, these are two strikingly different approaches. The functionalist wanted to know how and why the mind works (as opposed to how is it structured).